18.1 Cautions, Warning, and Disqualifications: An athlete who does not obey the instructions of the referee, acts against the competition rules, boxes in any unsportsmanlike manner, or commits fouls, can at the discretion of the referee, be cautioned, warned or disqualified without warning.
A referee may, without stopping a contest, caution an athlete at some safe opportunity. If the referee intends to warn an athlete, he/she shall stop the contest, and will demonstrate the infringement. The referee will then point to the athlete and to each of the 5 or 3 judges.
A referee having once administered a warning for a particular foul cannot issue a caution for the same type of offence. Three (3) cautions of the same type of foul will mandatorily require a warning to be issued.
Only 3 warnings may be given to the same athlete in one contest. The third warning brings automatic disqualification.
18.2 Types of fouls:
18.2.1 Biting, head-butting, spitting at an opponent, pressing on opponent’s eyes with the thumb.
18.2.2 Intentionally spitting out gum shield.
18.2.3 Throwing, bending the back of opponent with Judo or Wresting techniques.
18.2.4 Falling over while the opponent is lying on the floor.
18.2.5 Attacking the opponent who is down or who is in the act of rising.
18.2.6 Attacking while holding the ropes or making any unfair use of the ropes.
18.2.7 Locking of the opponent’s arm or head.
18.2.8 Completely passive defence by means of double cover and intentionally falling to avoid a hit.
18.2.9 Useless, aggressive, or offensive utterance during the round.
18.2.10 Not stepping back when ordered to “Yaek”. Attempting to hit the opponent immediately after the referee has ordered “Yaek” and before taking a step back.
18.2.11 Assaulting or behaving in an aggressive manner towards the referee at any time.
18.2.12 Kneeing the groin of the opponent, if the athlete is unintentionally hit by muaythai skill and unable to continue the fight, the referee will pause the fight for 5 minutes to allow the hit athlete to take a rest. If an athlete refuses to resume the fight after 5 minutes rest he (she) will be declared as the “loser”.
18.2.13 Holding the opponent’s leg and pushing forward more than 1 step without attacking with any one of the muaythai skills.
18.2.14 Intentionally falling down to avoid being hit while his/her leg is held by the opponent.
18.2.15 When both athletes fall out of the ring, it is a foul if one athlete tries to obstruct the other getting back into the ring.
18.2.16 Using any kind of forbidden substance acknowledged by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) or IFMA Anti- Doping Code.
18.3 Seconds: Each athlete can be held responsible for his/her seconds’ actions.
18.4 Referee consults Judges: If a referee has any reason to believe that a foul has been committed which he himself has not seen, he may consult the judges.